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 Transnational Issues

This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005

Map of Indonesia

Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Indonesia Top of Page
Definition Field Listing
The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; the islands were occupied by Japan from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence after Japan's surrender, but it required four years of intermittent negotiations, recurring hostilities, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to relinquish its colony. Indonesia is the world's largest archipelagic state. Current issues include: alleviating widespread poverty, preventing terrorism, continuing the transition to popularly-elected governments after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing reforms of the banking sector, addressing charges of cronyism and corruption, and holding the military and police accountable for human rights violations. Indonesia has been dealing with armed separatist movements in Aceh and in Papua.
   Geography    Indonesia Top of Page
Definition Field Listing
Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
5 00 S, 120 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Southeast Asia
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 1,919,440 sq km
land: 1,826,440 sq km
water: 93,000 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly less than three times the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,830 km
border countries: East Timor 228 km, Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km
Definition Field Listing
54,716 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Definition Field Listing
tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
Definition Field Listing
mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Puncak Jaya 5,030 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 11.32%
permanent crops: 7.23%
other: 81.45% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
48,150 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
occasional floods, severe droughts, tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanoes, forest fires
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
archipelago of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean
   People    Indonesia Top of Page
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
241,973,879 (July 2005 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 29.1% (male 35,823,456/female 34,590,631)
15-64 years: 65.7% (male 79,447,560/female 79,449,399)
65 years and over: 5.2% (male 5,526,389/female 7,136,444) (2005 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 26.48 years
male: 26.03 years
female: 26.93 years (2005 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.45% (2005 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
20.71 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.25 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 35.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 40.72 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 30.22 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 69.57 years
male: 67.13 years
female: 72.13 years (2005 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.44 children born/woman (2005 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
110,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2,400 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
Definition Field Listing
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and chikungunya are high risks in some locations (2004)
Definition Field Listing
noun: Indonesian(s)
adjective: Indonesian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Javanese 45%, Sundanese 14%, Madurese 7.5%, coastal Malays 7.5%, other 26%
Definition Field Listing
Muslim 88%, Protestant 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%, Buddhist 1%, other 1% (1998)
Definition Field Listing
Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects, the most widely spoken of which is Javanese
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 87.9%
male: 92.5%
female: 83.4% (2002 est.)
   Government    Indonesia Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
conventional short form: Indonesia
local long form: Republik Indonesia
local short form: Indonesia
former: Netherlands East Indies; Dutch East Indies
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
30 provinces (propinsi-propinsi, singular - propinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Irian Jaya Barat, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Kepulauan Bangka Belitung, Kepulauan Riau, Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Papua, Riau, Sulawesi Barat, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Yogyakarta*; note - with the implementation of decentralization on 1 January 2001, the 357 districts or regencies became the key administrative units responsible for providing most government services
Definition Field Listing
17 August 1945 (independence proclaimed); 27 December 1949 (Netherlands recognizes Indonesian independence)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 17 August (1945)
Definition Field Listing
August 1945; abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures and election codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Definition Field Listing
17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004) and Vice President Muhammad Yusuf KALLA (since 20 October 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004) and Vice President Muhammad Yusuf KALLA (since 20 October 2004);
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president and vice president were elected for five-year terms by direct vote of the citizenry; last held 20 September 2004 (next to be held in September 2009)
election results: Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO elected president receiving 60.6% of vote; MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri received 39.4%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (550 seats; members elected to serve five-year terms); House of Regional Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah or DPD), constitutionally mandated role includes providing legislative input to DPR on issues affecting regions; People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) has role in inaugurating and impeaching President and in amending constitution; consists of popularly-elected members in DPR and DPD; MPR does not formulate national policy
elections: last held 5 April 2004 (next to be held in April 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - Golkar 21.6%, PDI-P 18.5%, PKB 10.6%, PPP 8.2%, PD 7.5%, PKS 7.3%, PAN 6.4%, others 19.9%; seats by party - Golkar 128, PDI-P 109, PPP 58, PD 55, PAN 53, PKB 52, PKS 45, others 50
note: because of election rules, the number of seats won does not always follow the number of votes received by parties
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (justices appointed by the president from a list of candidates approved by the legislature); a separate Constitutional Court or Makhama Konstitusi was invested by the president on 16 August 2003; in March 2004 the Supreme Court assumed administrative and financial responsibility for the lower court system from the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Crescent Moon and Star Party or PBB [Yusril Ihza MAHENDRA, chairman]; Democratic Party or PD [Subur BUDHISANTOSO, chairman]; Functional Groups Party or Golkar [Yusuf KALLA, chairman]; Indonesia Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri, chairperson]; National Awakening Party or PKB [Alwi SHIHAB, chairman]; National Mandate Party or PAN [Amien RAIS, chairman]; Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [MAHFUD, acting chairman]; United Development Party or PPP [Hamzah HAZ, chairman]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador SOEMADI Brotodiningrat
chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200
FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador B. Lynn PASCOE
embassy: Jalan 1 Medan Merdeka Selatan 3-5, Jakarta 10110
mailing address: Unit 8129, Box 1, FPO AP 96520
telephone: [62] (21) 3435-9000
FAX: [62] (21) 385-7189
consulate(s) general: Surabaya
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red
   Economy    Indonesia Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Indonesia, a vast polyglot nation, has restored financial stability and pursued sober fiscal policies since the Asian financial crisis, but many economic development problems remain, including high unemployment, a fragile banking sector, endemic corruption, inadequate infrastructure, a poor investment climate, and unequal resource distribution among regions. Indonesia became a net oil importer in 2004 due to declining production and lack of new exploration investment. As a result, Jakarta is not reaping the benefits of high world oil prices, and the cost of subsidizing domestic fuel prices has placed an increasing strain on the budget. Keys to future growth remain internal reform, building up the confidence of international and domestic investors, and strong global economic growth. In late December 2004, a major tsunami took nearly 127,000 lives, left more than 93,000 missing and nearly 441,000 displaced, and destroyed $4.5 to $5.0 billion worth of property.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$827.4 billion (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.9% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $3,500 (2004 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 14.6%
industry: 45%
services: 40.4% (2004 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
111.5 million (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 45%, industry 16%, services 39% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.2% (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
27% (1999)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 26.7% (1999)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
37 (2001)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.1% (2004 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
16.6% of GDP (2004 est.)
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $52.13 billion
expenditures: $55.88 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
56.2% of GDP (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra, poultry, beef, pork, eggs
Definition Field Listing
petroleum and natural gas, textiles, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, food, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.5% (2004 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
110.2 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
92.35 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2002)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2002)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
971,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.183 million bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
518,100 bbl/day (2003)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
370,500 bbl/day (2003)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.9 billion bbl (2004 est.)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
77.6 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
55.3 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
39.7 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.549 trillion cu m (2004)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$7.338 billion (2004 est.)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$69.86 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
oil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, textiles, rubber
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Japan 22.3%, US 12.3%, Singapore 8.4%, South Korea 6.8%, China 6.4%, Malaysia 4.2% (2004)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$45.07 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Singapore 13.1%, Japan 13.1%, China 8.8%, US 7%, Thailand 6%, Australia 4.8%, Saudi Arabia 4.2%, South Korea 4.2% (2004)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$35.82 billion (2004 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$141.5 billion (2004 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$43 billion
note: Indonesia finished its IMF program in December 2003 but still receives bilateral aid through the Consultative Group on Indonesia (CGI), which pledged $2.8 billion in grants and loans for 2004 and again in 2005; nearly $4 billion in aid money pledged by a variety of foreign governments and other groups following the 2004 tsunami; money is slated for use in relief and rebuilding efforts in Aceh.
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
Indonesian rupiah (IDR)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Indonesian rupiahs per US dollar - 8,938.9 (2004), 8,577.1 (2003), 9,311.2 (2002), 10,260.8 (2001), 8,421.8 (2000)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year; note - previously was 1 April - 31 March, but starting with 2001, has been changed to calendar year
   Communications    Indonesia Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.75 million (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11.7 million (2002)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: domestic service fair, international service good
domestic: interisland microwave system and HF radio police net; domestic satellite communications system
international: country code - 62; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 678, FM 43, shortwave 82 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
41 (1999)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
62,036 (2003)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8 million (2002)
   Transportation    Indonesia Top of Page
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 6,458 km
narrow gauge: 5,961 km 1.067-m gauge (125 km electrified); 497 km 0.750-m gauge (2004)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 342,700 km
paved: 158,670 km
unpaved: 184,030 km (1999 est.)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
21,579 km
note: Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and Madura 820 km, Kalimantan 10,460 km, Sulawesi (Celebes) 241 km, Irian Jaya 4,587 km (2004)
Definition Field Listing
condensate 850 km; condensate/gas 128 km; gas 8,506 km; oil 7,472 km; oil/gas/water 66 km; refined products 1,329 km (2004)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Banjarmasin, Belawan, Ciwandan, Krueg Geukueh, Palembang, Panjang, Sungai Pakning, Tanjung Perak, Tanjung Priok
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 728 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 3,192,847 GRT/4,319,739 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 35, cargo 409, chemical tanker 19, container 36, liquefied gas 7, livestock carrier 1, passenger 41, passenger/cargo 36, petroleum tanker 125, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 13, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 2
foreign-owned: 19 (France 1, Japan 3, Philippines 1, Singapore 11, Switzerland 1, United Kingdom 2)
registered in other countries: 113 (2005)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
667 (2004 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 154
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m: 44
914 to 1,523 m: 49
under 914 m: 44 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 513
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 27
under 914 m: 480 (2004 est.)
Definition Field Listing
22 (2004 est.)
   Military    Indonesia Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Indonesia Armed Forces (TNI): Army (TNI-AD), Navy (TNI-AL, includes Marines, Naval Air arm), Air Force (TNI-AU)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscript service obligation - 2 years (2002)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 60,543,028 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 48,687,234 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 2,201,047 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.3 billion (2004)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3% (2004)
   Transnational Issues    Indonesia Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
East Timor-Indonesia Boundary Committee continues to meet, survey and delimit land boundary, but several sections of the boundary remain unresolved; Indonesia and East Timor contest the sovereignty of the uninhabited coral island of Palau Batek/Fatu Sinai, which hinders a decision on a northern maritime boundary; a 1997 treaty between Indonesia and Australia settled some parts of their maritime boundary but outstanding issues remain; ICJ's award of Sipadan and Ligitan islands to Malaysia in 2002 left maritime boundary in the hydrocarbon-rich Celebes Sea in dispute, culminating in hostile confrontations in March 2005 over concessions to the Ambalat oil block; the ICJ decision has prompted Indonesia to assert claims to and to establish a presence on its smaller outer islands; Indonesia and Singapore pledged in 2005 to finalize their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Batam Island; Indonesian secessionists, squatters, and illegal migrants create repatriation problems for Papua New Guinea; piracy remains a problem in the Malacca Strait
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing
IDPs: 535,000 (government offensives against rebels in Aceh; most IDPs in Aceh, Central Kalimantan, Maluku, and Central Sulawesi Provinces); 441,000 (resulting from 26 December 2004 tsunmai) (2004)
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; possible growing role as transshipment point for Golden Triangle heroin

This page was last updated on 20 October, 2005

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