Numismatic Reference

Alphabets in some Languages


Coin Identification


Common Era calendar conversions.
(Hebrew calendar)
(Islamic calendar)


Miscellaneous coin information

Numbers in some languages

Poems and fun facts about coins


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AE  Symbolic representation of bronze or copper in numismatic nomenclature.

As Grave  Cast bronze coins of  ancient Roman republic.

As Rude  Lumps of bronze used as money in ancient Rome.

Anepigraphic  Without an inscription or legend on the reverse side of the coin.

Antoninianus  Double denarius coin. Roman emperor  Caracalla (211-217 CE) introduced as a pure silver coin but soon debased to 3 percent silver. Depiction of emperor's portrait with a radiate crown is it's uniqueness.

AR  Symbolic representation of silver in numismatic nomenclature.

AV  Symbolic representation of gold in numismatic nomenclature.

Billion  Silver and copper alloy with equal proportions by weight. Primarily used to make low denomination coins.

Brass  Alloy of copper and zinc used to make low denomination coins in ancient Greece, Rome and China.

Bronze  Alloy of copper (90%) and tin (10%) used to make low denomination coins.

Commemorative coin  Coin issued to commemorate an event or a person.

Crenate     To mill the edge of a coin

Cash    Name of most common chinese copper/bronze coins with a square hole.

Cast coin    A coin made by pouring molten metal into molds.

Colony     word colonus is a Latin word for "cultivator" or "farmer." Colonia literally means the "collective of farmers." Colonies set up under the auspices of the Roman state played a vital part in the subjugation of Italy and it the spread of Roman influence.

Denarius  Silver coin of Roman republic and empire.

Denier  Silver coin of medieval europe.

Dinar  Gold coin of Islamic empires and countries.

Dirham  Silver coin of Islamic empires and countries.

Dollar  Standard monetary unit of the United States of America.

Doubloon  Spanish gold coins of seventeenth century.

Drachma  Standard Silver coin of ancient Greece.

Ducat  Gold coin of middle ages in europe. First in 1284 in Venice, Italy.

Electrum  Naturally occurring amalgam of gold and silver.

Epigraphy    Study of ancient  inscriptions.

Exergue    The space at the bottom of a coin on the reverse side, sometimes separated by a line.

Flan  Blank disc of metal of proper size, quality and weight to make a coin.

Florin  First introduced in 1252 CE as a gold coin in Florence, Italy. Later, silver coins of Austria and England were also used that name.

Follis  Roman base silver coin issued by Emperor Diocletian. A copper coin of of Byzantine empire.

Gros    (Grosso) A large silver coin of european nations.

Griffin    Greek mythological being with a body  of a lion, wings and head of an eagle.

Incuse    Stamping a recessed image into the surface of a coin as opposed to image rise in relief.

Ingot    A bar or lump of precious metal to a standard weight.

Legend    Inscription in a circle around the outside of the coin.

Mint mark    Symbol or letters in the design of coin to indicate the mint of its origin.

Obverse    Front or 'head' side of the coin, usually with an image of a portrait or symbol of the issuing authority.

Punch    A tool to stamp a design on a planchet (a flat piece of metal  or coin blank)

Reverse    Back or 'tail' side of the coin, usually denotes the value of the coin.

S.C.  Abbreviation of Senatus Consulto (with the approval of Roman senate). Part of the legend on the  ancient roman empire coins to denote the approval of the senate for the issue of those coins.

Shekel  Coin of ancient Judaea, Phoenicia and modern Israel.

Siglos  Silver coin of ancient Persian empire.

Stater  Principal and standardized gold or silver coin of ancient Greeks and Celts.

Taler  Large silver coin of German states of 1600s. The name Taler comes from the mint St. Jachimsthal where these large silver coins were minted first. Dollar is anglicized word of german Taler or Thaler.

Uniface  Coin stuck with design on one side only.



Introduction      Invention of coins    Index    Coin Identifier    What''s new?     Coin sellers 

Numismatic Reference    Acknowledgments     Life, Liberty and Laughter?    Email.