Republic of Finland
100 Pennia = 1 Markka
The present day Finns were probably originated in the region of river Volga of present day Russia. They migrated to Finland and displaced the native Sami (Lapps) in the late 7th century CE. The Finns were ruled by powerful Kingdoms of Sweden and Russia from the 12th century to 1917 CE. Eric IX of Sweden conquered the Finns and brought them under the Swedish rule in the 12th century CE. First coins minted in Finland were in the name of Swedish Kings from 1410 to 1558 CE at Turku. They were undated silver Ortugs. They have shield and crown or mint mark A for Aboa (latin for Turku) on obverse side and King's name on reverse. Dated coins were minted in Finland from 1523 CE. Ores and Marks in the name of King Gustavus I of Sweden were introduced for Finland and Sweden between 1523-60 CE.
Alexander I of Russia conquered Sweden in 1809 CE and acquired the Finland under the terms of the peace treaty. Thus, it became a grand duchy under the Russian Czar from 1809 CE. Russian ruble became the official monetary unit of Finland. However, Russian and Swedish coins were in circulation untill 1840 CE. Separate monetary system for Finland was introduced in 1859 with Markkaa and Penniä. Helsinki mint was set up in 1864 CE and Markkaa and Penniä were produced there.
In 1917 CE, Finland declared independence after the Bolshevik revolution in Russia. A brief civil war ensued between communists sympathizers and non-communists in 1917 CE. Non-communists were victorious and a republic was established with a new constitution on December 6, 1917.
The modern Republic of Finland with its capital at Helsinki is a part of the European Union with a population of 4.8 million. In 2002, Finland converted to monetary system based on Euros and Euro Cents.
The hyper links below will take you to the coin images of the respective period.
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