There are two legends about the founding of Roman Empire. Aneas, a Trojan prince went searching to found a New Troy  after the original Troy fell to the Greeks. He wound up on the banks of river  Tiber following the instructions of a soothsayer Helenus. He married the daughter of a local king Latinus and established City of Latinum. The other legend of Rome's founding was about two brothers Romulus and Remus. They were the born to the Roman God Mars and Rhea Silvia - a young daughter of Numitor, the King of Alba Longa. New borns were abanded on the river Tiber. They ended up on the shore near Palatine Hill and were suckled by a she wolf before they were rescued.  Romulus and Remus found the city of Rome on the banks of Tiber where they were rescued by the Shepherd.

Archealogically speaking, italian pennensula was inhabited by many Latin tribes and Etruscans. One of the latin tribes established Rome on  the river Tiber at the shallowest  part of it..

Romans used lumps of bronze as the currency in the fifth century BCE. They were called "aes rude". In fourth century BCE Romans started issuing cast bronze coins called "aes grave". Later in the fourth century they started issueing greek style silver coins.

In the third of  century BCE Romans fought a series of wars against Pyrrhus of Epirus (282-274 BCE) and Carthehagnians (265-242 & 218-201 BCE).

By 200BCE Rome was major power on Italian Peninsula and Roman coinage was dominant. Romans introduced silver Denarius (4.5 g) around 212 BCE. It was the principle monetary unit of Roman Republic for two centuries. It was equal to 10 bronze asses. In 141 BCE denarius was revalued at 16 asses. Early denarii always struck with head of Roma on obverse and equestrian figures of Castor and Pollex. Later Denarii were struck with varied designs and signature of moneyer.

Romans did not  issue any gold coins till 44 BCE during the civil wars of the republic.



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